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Posts tagged “household air pollution”

Sometimes, you get the unexpected.

Professor Kirk R. Smith, close friend, mentor, and pioneering environmental health scientist, passed away unexpectedly on Monday, June 15th, 2020 at home with his family. This news has been hard to process; a remembrance of Kirk follows.

I don't know where to begin, how to start. So I'll start at our beginning.

I emailed Dr. Smith, as I insisted on calling Dr. Smith then, out of the blue in July 2006. I was applying for a Fulbright in Nepal and proposed an air pollution assessment in a few rural villages. I needed help identifying a local field partner and knew Dr. Smith had worked in Nepal on similar issues. I had no sense of the scale of his work, knew only a little of his renown, and had enough youthful hubris to reach out blindly. Still, I honestly expected no response.

To adapt (or bastardize, you pick) a mantra of Dr. Smith's 1, and the motto of his research group: You don't get what you expect; sometimes, you get the unexpected. Dr. Smith wrote back a few hours after my random inquiry -- succinct and helpful, my first exposure to the notorious slash-k 2. He introduced me to Amod Pokhrel -- at the time, a student in EHS -- who helped me find a field partner and who has been a friend and colleague since. My first experience of one of Dr. Smith's many gifts: his generosity of time and thought. One short act - three lines in total, 2 of which were email addresses - opened a door for me and lay the groundwork for lifelong friendships and collaborations.

About a year later, Dr. Smith and I met in person in Nepal, over lukewarm chai, while I was on my Fulbright. As is often the case, this meeting was (1) after he had given a lecture and (2) before he had to dash off to another meeting. I remember being struck then, as ever, by his warmth, his willingness to interact despite being very busy, his quirky sense of humor, and his intellectual rigor. He encouraged me to consider a PhD at Berkeley. We had about a half hour talk and then went to find cabs: it was pouring, otherwise I am confident he would have walked or taken the bus or a tuk-tuk.

We were infrequently in touch for the next year. I applied to the EHS PhD program at Berkeley in late 2009, got in, and moved into an apartment in Oakland in July of 2010. At some point in that first few months, I called Dr. Smith's home, up Panoramic Way, and Joan answered. Joan scared me just as much as Dr. Smith in those days. I asked for Dr. Smith, and she gave him the phone, saying something along the lines of, "Will you please tell him to stop with this Dr. Smith nonsense?" It was just loud enough that I could hear it, and it worked: 'Dr. Smith' (eventually) gave way to 'Kirk'. An example, one of many, highlighting Joan's wit, grace, warmth, and intellect.

Between then and now, there are a lot of stories -- some are mine, but so many more are Kirk's. We know he was never shy with a story. I never tired of them (okay, yeah: sometimes I tired of them).

I had the privilege of working directly with Kirk - first as a doctoral student, then as a postdoc - for the last decade, on small and large projects of all types, all over the globe. He was the greatest advocate for his students I have ever seen, and our working relationship was the best I have had. I learned much watching Kirk move through the world, with his grace, wit, inquisitiveness, and, when needed, prickly sharpness. Our friendship grew into something deep and constant. I'd like to think I gave to Kirk a thousandth of what he gave to me, but that is unlikely.

My last in-person visit with Kirk was in mid-February, about six weeks after we moved from Oakland to Atlanta, and ten years since we made the opposite journey, from Atlanta to Oakland. Mid-February, just before the pandemic obliterated routine and instated an era of uncertainty. Just six weeks after I had started a new job.

Kirk asked me to return to Berkeley to lecture in two of his classes: one an air pollution and health course that he and I launched with John Balmes, and the other his Environmental Health breadth course, which he was in the process of reimagining. Always reimagining, always improving.

We met a few times during that short visit, between other obligations. Kirk offered advice about new jobs, which he said he borrowed from Joanie, and his own supportive words; we discussed ongoing and potential work together; we ended the day with a nice Korean meal. It was a cool, drizzly Berkeley evening. I remember walking after that meal, full of bibimbap and nostalgia, heavy with memories (and with rice). The next morning's lecture, in the air pollution and health class, was small, intimate, fun; Kirk shuffled out early to go up to Bear Valley with his family. When class wrapped, I dropped some things off at Maria's desk, wandering by Kirk's office, wondering when I would see it again.

I never expected that visit to be the last time we would meet in person or see each other; nor did I expect our lives to be turned upside down by a new, emergent public health threat enabled, in some ways, by the same time- and space-folding habits that enabled Kirk and I (and so many others) to do our work. I never expected to form a deep bond with such an important, transformative thinker, and certainly never expected to count him among my closest confidants, mentors, and dearest friends. I didn't expect to hear the words "Kirk" and "stroke" and "cardiac arrest" strung together a few months later.

I expected our plans for new studies - that we discussed, just days ago - to bear fruit through our collective efforts. I expected that we would carry on for at least another decade of work, of stories, of excitement, of quibbles, of jetlag and food poisoning, of kids and grandkids, of small and large adventure, of gentle silence and enthusiastic proclamation, of our Kirk.

Sometimes, you don't get what you expect, or what you inspect. Sometimes, you get the unexpected.

  1. "You don't get what you expect, you get what you inspect."

  2. Dr. Smith's emails were short, very short, and unique. The subject line was usually the first part of a sentence: whatever he was emailing about; the next terse phrase continued that thought; they invariably ended with '/k'.

Everybody stacks: Lessons from household energy case studies to inform design principles for clean energy transitions

Shankar AV, Quinn AK, Dickinson KL, Williams KN, Masera O, Charron D, Jack D, Hyman J, Pillarisetti A, Bailis R, Kumar P, Ruiz-Mercado I, Rosenthal JP. Everybody stacks: Lessons from household energy case studies to inform design principles for clean energy transitions. Energy Policy, June 2020, 141, 111468.

PMUY beneficiaries get 3 free LPG cylinders in response to COVID-19

From the Economic Times of India

"The relief package of Rs 1.7 lakh crore will help the nation deal with disruptions from the Covid-19 outbreak," he said in a statement. "Comprehensive measures announced today, will mitigate the economic impact of the Covid-19 outbreak on the rural and urban poor, farmers, health workers, migrant workers, divyangs, senior citizens and other vulnerable sections of the society."

More detail from Times of India

The guideline issued for the scheme on Tuesday said the Centre will transfer the full cost of a cylinder as advance by the fourth of the month till June. This will allow the households to book the refills under the free-cylinder scheme.

The guidelines also allow the connection holder to retain the advance payment and use it till March 2021 for buying a cylinder in case a household does not take all the three cylinders under the special scheme. But, households can get only one cylinder a month and there has to be a minimum 15-day gap between two bookings for refills. These measures are aimed at checking misuse of the scheme or diversion of subsidised cylinders meant for the poor.

ABODE: Air Burden of Disease Explorer

who_homes.png Access ABODE. ABODE estimates health changes due to interventions designed to lower exposures to household air pollution (HAP) of household members currently using unclean fuels (wood, dung, coal, kerosene, and others). These interventions could be due to cleaner burning stoves, cleaner fuels, providing chimneys or other ventilation changes, movement of the traditional hearth to a different location, motivating changes in behavior, or a combination of the above. ABODE can also estimate changes in health due to changes in ambient air pollution from household interventions that may not be measured in normal household exposure measurements. With some care in entering input parameters, it can be used for evaluating other interventions to reduce HAP, including those for lighting and spaceheating.

An Integrated Sensor Data Logging, Survey, and Analytics Platform for Field Research and Its Application in HAPIN, a Multi-Center Household Energy Intervention Trial

Wilson, D.L.; Williams, K.N.; Pillarisetti, A., on behalf of the HAPIN Investigators. An Integrated Sensor Data Logging, Survey, and Analytics Platform for Field Research and Its Application in HAPIN, a Multi-Center Household Energy Intervention Trial. Sustainability 2020, 12, 1805.

Comparison of next‐generation portable pollution monitors to measure exposure to PM2.5 from household air pollution in Puno, Peru

Burrowes VJ, Piedrahita R, Pillarisetti A, Underhill L, Fandiño‐Del‐Rio M, Johnson M, Kephart J, Hartinger SM, Steenland K, Naeher L, Kearns K, Peel JL, Clark ML, Checkley W and HAPIN Investigators (2020), Comparison of next‐generation portable pollution monitors to measure exposure to PM2.5 from household air pollution in Puno, Peru. Indoor Air. Accepted Author Manuscript.

Challenges in the diagnosis of paediatric pneumonia in intervention field trials: recommendations from a pneumonia field trial working group

Goodman D, Crocker ME, Pervaiz F, McCollum ED, Steenland K, Simkovich SM, Miele CH, Hammitt LL, Herrera P, Zar HJ, Campbell H, Lanata CF, McCracken JP, Thompson LM, Rosa G, Kirby MA, Garg S, Thangavel G, Thanasekaraan V, Balakrishnan K, King C, Clasen T, Checkley W, Nambajimana A, Pillarisetti A, et al. (2019) Challenges in the diagnosis of paediatric pneumonia in intervention field trials: recommendations from a pneumonia field trial working group.

The use of bluetooth low energy Beacon systems to estimate indirect personal exposure to household air pollution

Liao J, McCracken JP, Piedrahita R, Thompson L, Mollinedo E, Canuz E, De Leon O, Díaz-Artiga A, Johnson M, Clark M, Pillarisetti A, Kearns K, Naeher L, Steenland K, Checkley W, Peel J, Clasen TF et al. (2019) The use of bluetooth low energy Beacon systems to estimate indirect personal exposure to household air pollution. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol (2019) doi:10.1038/s41370-019-0172-z

Impacts of household sources on air pollution at village and regional scales in India

Rooney B, Zhao R, Wang Y, Bates KH, Pillarisetti A, Sharma S, Kundu S, Bond TC, Lam NL, Ozaltun B, Xu L, Goel V, Fleming LT, Weltman R, Meinardi S, Blake DR, Nizkorodov SA, Edwards RD, Yadav A, Arora NK, Smith KR, Seinfeld JH (2019) Impacts of household sources on air pollution at village and regional scales in India. Atmos Chem Phys 19:7719-7742.

Health Effects Institute (HEI) Household Air Pollution - Ghana Working Group (including A Pillarisetti), Contribution of household air pollution to ambient air pollution in Ghana: Using available evidence to prioritize future action, HEI Communication 19, Boston, MA. Report. Press Release. Summary for Policymakers

Machine-learned modeling of PM2.5 exposures in rural Lao PDR

Hill LD, Pillarisetti A, Delapena S, Garland C, Pennise D, Pelletreau A, Koetting P, Motmans T, Vongnakhone K, Khammavong C, Boatman MR, Balmes K, Hubbard A, Smith Kr. 2019. Machine-learned modeling of PM2.5 exposures in rural Lao PDR. Science of The Total Environment, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.258.

Modeling the Impact of an Indoor Air Filter on Air Pollution Exposure Reduction and Associated Mortality in Urban Delhi Household

Liao J, Ye W, Pillarisetti A, Clasen TF. Modeling the Impact of an Indoor Air Filter on Air Pollution Exposure Reduction and Associated Mortality in Urban Delhi Household. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1391; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081391    Supplementary Information

Indian annual ambient air quality standard is achievable by completely mitigating emissions from household sources

Chowdhury S, Dey S, Guttikunda S, Pillarisetti A, Smith KR, Di Girolamo L. Indian annual ambient air quality standard is achievable by completely mitigating emissions from household sources. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Apr 2019, 201900888; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1900888116. Supporting Information.

Promoting LPG usage during pregnancy: A pilot study in rural Maharashtra, India

Pillarisetti A*, Ghorpade M, Madhav S, Dhongade A, Roy S, Balakrishnan K, Sankar S, Patil R, Levine DI, Juvekar S, Smith KR (2019) Promoting LPG usage during pregnancy: A pilot study in rural Maharashtra, India. Environment International 127:540-549.     Supporting Information (.docx)

Air Pollution and Impact Analysis of a Pilot Stove Intervention: Report to the Ministry of Health and Inter-Ministerial Clean Stove Initiative of the Lao People's Democratic Republic

Hill LD, Pillarisetti A, Delapena S, Garland C, Jagoe K, Koetting P, Pelletreau A, Boatman MR, Pennise D, Smith KR. 2015. Air Pollution and Impact Analysis of a Pilot Stove Intervention: Report to the Ministry of Health and Inter-Ministerial Clean Stove Initiative of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic.

Quantification of a saleable health product (aDALYs) from household cooking interventions

Smith KR, Pillarisetti A, Hill LD, Charron D, Delapena S, Garland C, Pennise D. 2015. Quantification of a saleable health product (aDALYs) from household cooking interventions. World Bank.

Quantifying the Health Impacts of ACE-1 Biomass and Biogas Stoves in Cambodia

University of California, Berkeley; Berkeley Air Monitoring Group, and SNV Netherlands Development Organisation. 2015. Quantifying the Health Impacts of ACE-1 Biomass and Biogas Stoves in Cambodia.

Household Air Pollution and Noncommunicable Disease

HEI Household Air Pollution Working Group. 2018. Household Air Pollution and Noncommunicable Disease. Communication 18. Boston, MA: Health Effects Institute. peer reviewed.

TRAINSET

trainset Access TRAINSET. TRAINSET is a graphical tool for labeling time series data. Labeling is typically used to record interesting points in time series data. For example, if you had temperature data from a sensor mounted to a stove, you could label points that constitute cooking events. Labels could be used as-is or as a training set for machine learning algorithms. For example, TRAINSET could be used to build a training set for an algorithm that detects cooking events in temperature time series data.

WHO Homes Model

who_homes.png Access WHO HOMES Model. The WHO HOMES model is an online implementation of a single compartment boxmodel appropriate for estimating PM or CO concentrations resulting from the combustion of solid fuels in homes. It contains a number of easy to manipulate parameters, like air changes per hour, cooking time, etc, that are used to recreate distributions from which Monte Carlo analyses can be performed. It can estimate exposures using a number of methods.