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Posts tagged “household energy”

LPG stove and fuel intervention among pregnant women reduce fine particle air pollution exposures in three countries: Pilot results from the HAPIN trial

Liao J, Kirby M, Pillarisetti A, et al. LPG stove and fuel intervention among pregnant women reduce fine particle air pollution exposures in three countries: Pilot results from the HAPIN trial. Environmental Pollution 2021: 118198. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118198.

Barriers to and facilitators of uptake and sustained use of LPG through the PMUY in tribal communities of Pune district

Patil R, Roy S, Gore M, Ghorpade M, Pillarisetti A, Chakma J, Juvekar S. Barriers to and facilitators of uptake and sustained use of LPG through the PMUY in tribal communities of Pune district. Energy for Sustainable Development 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.esd.2021.04.008

Modeling approaches and performance for estimating personal exposure to household air pollution: A case study in Kenya

Johnson, M., Piedrahita, R., Pillarisetti, A., Shupler, M., Menya, D., Rossanese, M., Delapeña, S., Penumetcha, N., Chartier, R., Puzzolo, E. and Pope, D. (2021), Modeling approaches and performance for estimating personal exposure to household air pollution: A case study in Kenya. Indoor Air. https://doi.org/10.1111/ina.12790

Towards safe drinking water and clean cooking for all

Isha Ray, writing with and channeling the late Kirk R. Smith, in Lancet Global Health:

In the past 40 decades, there have been many innovations in the development of low-cost and efficacious technologies for WASH and household air pollution, but many of these technologies have been associated with disappointing health outcomes, often because low-income households have either not adopted, or inconsistently adopted, these technologies. In this Viewpoint, we argue that public health researchers (ourselves included) have had an oversimplified understanding of poverty; our work has not focused on insights into the lived experience of poverty, with its uncertainties, stresses from constant scarcity, and attendant fears. Such insights are central to understanding why technologies for safe water or clean cooking are unused by so many households that could benefit from them. We argue that, rather than improved versions of household-scale delivery models, transformative investments in safe water and clean cooking for all require utility-scale service models.

In the months before Kirk passed away, this topic -- the combination of WASH and HAP interventions, the merging of decades of thinking about usage, service delivery, affordability, and quality of interventions -- was a common theme. See also 'Let the "A" in WASH Stand for Air: Integrating Research and Interventions to Improve Household Air Pollution (HAP) and Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WaSH) in Low-Income Settings.'

an aside: I think they must have meant "the past 40 years" or "past 4 decades" -- but also Kirk worked on these issues with such mental intensity and productive output it may as well have been 40 decades.

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on clean fuel programmes in India and ensuring sustainability for household energy needs

Ravindra K, Kaur-Sidhu M, Mor S, Chakma J, Pillarisetti A. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on clean fuel programmes in India and ensuring sustainability for household energy needs. Environment International. 2021; 147. doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.106335

Boiled or Bottled: Regional and Seasonal Exposures to Drinking Water Contamination and Household Air Pollution in Rural China

Cohen A, Pillarisetti A, Luo Q, Zhang Q, Li H, Zhong G, Zhu G, Colford JM, Smith KR, Ray I, Tao Y. Boiled or Bottled: Regional and Seasonal Exposures to Drinking Water Contamination and Household Air Pollution in Rural China. Env. Health. Perspect. 2020; 128(12). doi.org/10.1289/EHP7124

Incentivizing Elimination of Biomass Cooking Fuels with a Reversible Commitment and a Spare LPG Cylinder

Harrell S, Pillarisetti A, Roy S, Ghorpade M, Patil R, Dhongade A, Smith KR, Levine DI, Juvekar S. Incentivizing Elimination of Biomass Cooking Fuels with a Reversible Commitment and a Spare LPG Cylinder. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2020; 54(23):15313-15319. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.0c01818.

Marriage-based pilot clean household fuel intervention in India for improved pregnancy outcomes

Pillarisetti A, Roy S, Diamond-Smith N, Ghorpade M, Dhongade A, Balakrishnan K, Sambandam S, Patil R, Levine D, Juvekar S, Smith K. Marriage-based pilot clean household fuel intervention in India for improved pregnancy outcomes. BMJ Open. 2020/10; 10(10):e044127. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-044127.

Using longitudinal survey and sensor data to understand the social and ecological determinants of clean fuels use and discontinuance in rural Ghana

Carrión D, Prah R, Gould C, Agbokey F, Mujtaba M, Pillarisetti A, Tumasi M, Agyei O, Chillrud S, Tawiah T, Jack D, Asante K. Using longitudinal survey and sensor data to understand the social and ecological determinants of clean fuels use and discontinuance in rural Ghana. Environmental Research Communications. 2020/10; 2(9):095003. doi: 10.1088/2515-7620/abb831

Using repeat surveys to assess the impact of COVID‐19 on household energy use in Jharkhand, India

With Lisa Thompson (Emory), Johannes Urpelainen (Johns Hopkins), Carlos Gould (Columbia), and Morsel Research and Development (Uttar Pradesh, India)

India has undergone a dramatic household energy transformation in recent years, driven by government initiatives to increase clean fuel access. These improvements have not led to complete transitions to clean cooking, with most households continuing regular biomass use, a trend that may be exacerbated by the COVID‐19 pandemic. We leverage and extend a recently completed energy survey of 1440 households in rural Jharkhand by deploying a follow‐up, telephone‐based questionnaire multiple times over the next year, enabling analysis of how COVID‐19 and stay‐at‐home orders alter energy use behaviors. Findings from this longitudinal study will help (1) understand drivers of stacking or exclusive LPG or biomass use; (2) provide insights into how resilient household energy use patterns are to sudden economic and social shocks; and (3) establish guidance that may inform planning for the next pandemic or other unexpected shock.

Sometimes, you get the unexpected.

Professor Kirk R. Smith, close friend, mentor, and pioneering environmental health scientist, passed away unexpectedly on Monday, June 15th, 2020 at home with his family. This news has been hard to process; a remembrance of Kirk follows.

I don't know where to begin, how to start. So I'll start at our beginning.

I emailed Dr. Smith, as I insisted on calling Dr. Smith then, out of the blue in July 2006. I was applying for a Fulbright in Nepal and proposed an air pollution assessment in a few rural villages. I needed help identifying a local field partner and knew Dr. Smith had worked in Nepal on similar issues. I had no sense of the scale of his work, knew only a little of his renown, and had enough youthful hubris to reach out blindly. Still, I honestly expected no response.

To adapt (or bastardize, you pick) a mantra of Dr. Smith's 1, and the motto of his research group: You don't get what you expect; sometimes, you get the unexpected. Dr. Smith wrote back a few hours after my random inquiry -- succinct and helpful, my first exposure to the notorious slash-k 2. He introduced me to Amod Pokhrel -- at the time, a student in EHS -- who helped me find a field partner and who has been a friend and colleague since. My first experience of one of Dr. Smith's many gifts: his generosity of time and thought. One short act - three lines in total, 2 of which were email addresses - opened a door for me and lay the groundwork for lifelong friendships and collaborations.

About a year later, Dr. Smith and I met in person in Nepal, over lukewarm chai, while I was on my Fulbright. As is often the case, this meeting was (1) after he had given a lecture and (2) before he had to dash off to another meeting. I remember being struck then, as ever, by his warmth, his willingness to interact despite being very busy, his quirky sense of humor, and his intellectual rigor. He encouraged me to consider a PhD at Berkeley. We had about a half hour talk and then went to find cabs: it was pouring, otherwise I am confident he would have walked or taken the bus or a tuk-tuk.

We were infrequently in touch for the next year. I applied to the EHS PhD program at Berkeley in late 2009, got in, and moved into an apartment in Oakland in July of 2010. At some point in that first few months, I called Dr. Smith's home, up Panoramic Way, and Joan answered. Joan scared me just as much as Dr. Smith in those days. I asked for Dr. Smith, and she gave him the phone, saying something along the lines of, "Will you please tell him to stop with this Dr. Smith nonsense?" It was just loud enough that I could hear it, and it worked: 'Dr. Smith' (eventually) gave way to 'Kirk'. An example, one of many, highlighting Joan's wit, grace, warmth, and intellect.

Between then and now, there are a lot of stories -- some are mine, but so many more are Kirk's. We know he was never shy with a story. I never tired of them (okay, yeah: sometimes I tired of them).

I had the privilege of working directly with Kirk - first as a doctoral student, then as a postdoc - for the last decade, on small and large projects of all types, all over the globe. He was the greatest advocate for his students I have ever seen, and our working relationship was the best I have had. I learned much watching Kirk move through the world, with his grace, wit, inquisitiveness, and, when needed, prickly sharpness. Our friendship grew into something deep and constant. I'd like to think I gave to Kirk a thousandth of what he gave to me, but that is unlikely.

My last in-person visit with Kirk was in mid-February, about six weeks after we moved from Oakland to Atlanta, and ten years since we made the opposite journey, from Atlanta to Oakland. Mid-February, just before the pandemic obliterated routine and instated an era of uncertainty. Just six weeks after I had started a new job.

Kirk asked me to return to Berkeley to lecture in two of his classes: one an air pollution and health course that he and I launched with John Balmes, and the other his Environmental Health breadth course, which he was in the process of reimagining. Always reimagining, always improving.

We met a few times during that short visit, between other obligations. Kirk offered advice about new jobs, which he said he borrowed from Joanie, and his own supportive words; we discussed ongoing and potential work together; we ended the day with a nice Korean meal. It was a cool, drizzly Berkeley evening. I remember walking after that meal, full of bibimbap and nostalgia, heavy with memories (and with rice). The next morning's lecture, in the air pollution and health class, was small, intimate, fun; Kirk shuffled out early to go up to Bear Valley with his family. When class wrapped, I dropped some things off at Maria's desk, wandering by Kirk's office, wondering when I would see it again.

I never expected that visit to be the last time we would meet in person or see each other; nor did I expect our lives to be turned upside down by a new, emergent public health threat enabled, in some ways, by the same time- and space-folding habits that enabled Kirk and I (and so many others) to do our work. I never expected to form a deep bond with such an important, transformative thinker, and certainly never expected to count him among my closest confidants, mentors, and dearest friends. I didn't expect to hear the words "Kirk" and "stroke" and "cardiac arrest" strung together a few months later.

I expected our plans for new studies - that we discussed, just days ago - to bear fruit through our collective efforts. I expected that we would carry on for at least another decade of work, of stories, of excitement, of quibbles, of jetlag and food poisoning, of kids and grandkids, of small and large adventure, of gentle silence and enthusiastic proclamation, of our Kirk.

Sometimes, you don't get what you expect, or what you inspect. Sometimes, you get the unexpected.

  1. "You don't get what you expect, you get what you inspect."

  2. Dr. Smith's emails were short, very short, and unique. The subject line was usually the first part of a sentence: whatever he was emailing about; the next terse phrase continued that thought; they invariably ended with '/k'.

Everybody stacks: Lessons from household energy case studies to inform design principles for clean energy transitions

Shankar AV, Quinn AK, Dickinson KL, Williams KN, Masera O, Charron D, Jack D, Hyman J, Pillarisetti A, Bailis R, Kumar P, Ruiz-Mercado I, Rosenthal JP. Everybody stacks: Lessons from household energy case studies to inform design principles for clean energy transitions. Energy Policy, June 2020, 141, 111468.

PMUY beneficiaries get 3 free LPG cylinders in response to COVID-19

From the Economic Times of India

"The relief package of Rs 1.7 lakh crore will help the nation deal with disruptions from the Covid-19 outbreak," he said in a statement. "Comprehensive measures announced today, will mitigate the economic impact of the Covid-19 outbreak on the rural and urban poor, farmers, health workers, migrant workers, divyangs, senior citizens and other vulnerable sections of the society."

More detail from Times of India

The guideline issued for the scheme on Tuesday said the Centre will transfer the full cost of a cylinder as advance by the fourth of the month till June. This will allow the households to book the refills under the free-cylinder scheme.

The guidelines also allow the connection holder to retain the advance payment and use it till March 2021 for buying a cylinder in case a household does not take all the three cylinders under the special scheme. But, households can get only one cylinder a month and there has to be a minimum 15-day gap between two bookings for refills. These measures are aimed at checking misuse of the scheme or diversion of subsidised cylinders meant for the poor.

Machine-learned modeling of PM2.5 exposures in rural Lao PDR

Hill LD, Pillarisetti A, Delapena S, Garland C, Pennise D, Pelletreau A, Koetting P, Motmans T, Vongnakhone K, Khammavong C, Boatman MR, Balmes K, Hubbard A, Smith Kr. 2019. Machine-learned modeling of PM2.5 exposures in rural Lao PDR. Science of The Total Environment, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.258.

Modeling the Impact of an Indoor Air Filter on Air Pollution Exposure Reduction and Associated Mortality in Urban Delhi Household

Liao J, Ye W, Pillarisetti A, Clasen TF. Modeling the Impact of an Indoor Air Filter on Air Pollution Exposure Reduction and Associated Mortality in Urban Delhi Household. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1391; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081391    Supplementary Information

Indian annual ambient air quality standard is achievable by completely mitigating emissions from household sources

Chowdhury S, Dey S, Guttikunda S, Pillarisetti A, Smith KR, Di Girolamo L. Indian annual ambient air quality standard is achievable by completely mitigating emissions from household sources. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Apr 2019, 201900888; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1900888116. Supporting Information.

Air Pollution and Impact Analysis of a Pilot Stove Intervention: Report to the Ministry of Health and Inter-Ministerial Clean Stove Initiative of the Lao People's Democratic Republic

Hill LD, Pillarisetti A, Delapena S, Garland C, Jagoe K, Koetting P, Pelletreau A, Boatman MR, Pennise D, Smith KR. 2015. Air Pollution and Impact Analysis of a Pilot Stove Intervention: Report to the Ministry of Health and Inter-Ministerial Clean Stove Initiative of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic.

Quantifying the Health Impacts of ACE-1 Biomass and Biogas Stoves in Cambodia

University of California, Berkeley; Berkeley Air Monitoring Group, and SNV Netherlands Development Organisation. 2015. Quantifying the Health Impacts of ACE-1 Biomass and Biogas Stoves in Cambodia.

TRAINSET

trainset Access TRAINSET. TRAINSET is a graphical tool for labeling time series data. Labeling is typically used to record interesting points in time series data. For example, if you had temperature data from a sensor mounted to a stove, you could label points that constitute cooking events. Labels could be used as-is or as a training set for machine learning algorithms. For example, TRAINSET could be used to build a training set for an algorithm that detects cooking events in temperature time series data.

WHO Homes Model

who_homes.png Access WHO HOMES Model. The WHO HOMES model is an online implementation of a single compartment boxmodel appropriate for estimating PM or CO concentrations resulting from the combustion of solid fuels in homes. It contains a number of easy to manipulate parameters, like air changes per hour, cooking time, etc, that are used to recreate distributions from which Monte Carlo analyses can be performed. It can estimate exposures using a number of methods.