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Posts tagged “india”

LPG stove and fuel intervention among pregnant women reduce fine particle air pollution exposures in three countries: Pilot results from the HAPIN trial

Liao J, Kirby M, Pillarisetti A, et al. LPG stove and fuel intervention among pregnant women reduce fine particle air pollution exposures in three countries: Pilot results from the HAPIN trial. Environmental Pollution 2021: 118198. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118198.

Barriers to and facilitators of uptake and sustained use of LPG through the PMUY in tribal communities of Pune district

Patil R, Roy S, Gore M, Ghorpade M, Pillarisetti A, Chakma J, Juvekar S. Barriers to and facilitators of uptake and sustained use of LPG through the PMUY in tribal communities of Pune district. Energy for Sustainable Development 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.esd.2021.04.008

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on clean fuel programmes in India and ensuring sustainability for household energy needs

Ravindra K, Kaur-Sidhu M, Mor S, Chakma J, Pillarisetti A. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on clean fuel programmes in India and ensuring sustainability for household energy needs. Environment International. 2021; 147. doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.106335

Incentivizing Elimination of Biomass Cooking Fuels with a Reversible Commitment and a Spare LPG Cylinder

Harrell S, Pillarisetti A, Roy S, Ghorpade M, Patil R, Dhongade A, Smith KR, Levine DI, Juvekar S. Incentivizing Elimination of Biomass Cooking Fuels with a Reversible Commitment and a Spare LPG Cylinder. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2020; 54(23):15313-15319. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.0c01818.

Exposure contrasts associated with a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) intervention at potential field sites for the multi-country household air pollution intervention network (HAPIN) trial in India: results from pilot phase activities in rural Tamil Nadu.

Sambandam, S., Mukhopadhyay, K., Sendhil, S. et al. Exposure contrasts associated with a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) intervention at potential field sites for the multi-country household air pollution intervention network (HAPIN) trial in India: results from pilot phase activities in rural Tamil Nadu. BMC Public Health 20, 1799 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09865-1

AAM-LASSI: Ambient Air Monitoring of LPG At Scale in South India

With Manish Desai, Krishnendu Mukhopadhyay, Naveen Puttaswamy, Sankar Sambandam, Gurusamy Thangavel, and Kalpana Balakrishnan.

The world's most ambitious scale up of clean fuels has taken place across India in the past five years. The Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY) program, building upon previous efforts, provided access to LPG for an additional 80 million homes. However, continued fuel stacking and inconsistent coverage of the intervention has left overall household air pollution exposure reductions in households and associated ambient air pollution reductions lower than what is needed to meet Indian national standards or WHO guidelines. The ongoing HAPIN trial will provide critical information on personal exposures and health effects of interventions at the household level for an LPG and free fuel intervention but little information regarding the effect of scaling such an intervention. Several recent modelling exercises suggest that household biomass burning results in significant contributions to ambient air pollution at national and regional levels. However, there is almost no actual data to support quantitative targets for program design and maintenance at the village and district level that could guide village coverage goals for household use of LPG to displace solid fuel burning. Because of the PMUY scale up history, patchy uptake at community levels, and relatively low level of industrial sources of pollution, Southern India, including currently enrolled HAPIN districts, provides an ideal setting to study the Reach and Effectiveness of this massive LPG program and to contribute evidence-based guidance to support critical implementation targets for policy around village- level coverage and LPG utilization. We request ISN support to conduct data gathering, analyses, and modelling of this natural experiment to help fill this important gap in implementation guidance.

PMUY beneficiaries get 3 free LPG cylinders in response to COVID-19

From the Economic Times of India

"The relief package of Rs 1.7 lakh crore will help the nation deal with disruptions from the Covid-19 outbreak," he said in a statement. "Comprehensive measures announced today, will mitigate the economic impact of the Covid-19 outbreak on the rural and urban poor, farmers, health workers, migrant workers, divyangs, senior citizens and other vulnerable sections of the society."

More detail from Times of India

The guideline issued for the scheme on Tuesday said the Centre will transfer the full cost of a cylinder as advance by the fourth of the month till June. This will allow the households to book the refills under the free-cylinder scheme.

The guidelines also allow the connection holder to retain the advance payment and use it till March 2021 for buying a cylinder in case a household does not take all the three cylinders under the special scheme. But, households can get only one cylinder a month and there has to be a minimum 15-day gap between two bookings for refills. These measures are aimed at checking misuse of the scheme or diversion of subsidised cylinders meant for the poor.

The Colonial Roots of India's Air Pollution Crisis

A fascinating interrogation of the air pollution crisis in India in EPW by Asher Ghertner. The full article is behind a paywall, unfortunately; Rutgers has a good summary:

Drawing on the "fact" of small Indian lungs, key Indian government ministries have argued something quite different, suggesting that Indian lungs are not uniquely vulnerable to air pollution but rather uniquely "adapted" to tropical air/dust. Small lungs, in other words, are somehow less affected by pollution - they claim. These ministries have used the anatomical difference in Indian lung size to challenge the applicability of World Health Organization and Global Burden of Disease (GBD) integrated exposure-response (IER) functions for air pollution--which define the expected increase in death and illness caused by levels of pollution exposure within a population. Ghertner uses these ministries' arguments and testimonies from judicial records to show how the same argument used in the colonial era to submit Indian workers to unshielded "miasmas" now subjects all citizens to a process of slow death by breath. This also normalizes what he calls a "sequestration" model of atmospheric conduct that maintains that the solution to pollution is enclosure - escape into private cars and townships or self-defense through air pollution masks and personal purification systems - not pollution abatement.

Modeling the Impact of an Indoor Air Filter on Air Pollution Exposure Reduction and Associated Mortality in Urban Delhi Household

Liao J, Ye W, Pillarisetti A, Clasen TF. Modeling the Impact of an Indoor Air Filter on Air Pollution Exposure Reduction and Associated Mortality in Urban Delhi Household. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1391; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081391    Supplementary Information

Promoting LPG usage during pregnancy: A pilot study in rural Maharashtra, India

Pillarisetti A*, Ghorpade M, Madhav S, Dhongade A, Roy S, Balakrishnan K, Sankar S, Patil R, Levine DI, Juvekar S, Smith KR (2019) Promoting LPG usage during pregnancy: A pilot study in rural Maharashtra, India. Environment International 127:540-549.     Supporting Information (.docx)

Understanding Air Pollution with Art: "The Air of the Anthropocene" and "Mutual Air"

Playground, India Institute of Technology Campus, Delhi, India - PM2.5 500 - 600 µg/m3

Artist Robin Price and Professor Francis Pope use experimental photography to “see” small particles as part of their “Air of the Anthropocene” project (h/t Zoe Chafe). The photos are stunning. From a Guardian piece highlighting many of the photos:

Using a custom-built digital light painter and wearable particulate sensor, I take long exposure photographs that paint the amount of PM2.5 particles in the air as particles of light. As the light painter’s sensor detects more pollution it draws correspondingly greater numbers of light particles into the photograph. The effect is as if the microscopic pollution has been enlarged and lit up, shedding light on the invisible particles.

Meanwhile, in the Bay Area, Artist Rosten Woo uses chimes to make air pollution audible:

Mutual Air is a network of roughly thirty specially designed bells that generate a soundscape reflecting and responding to the changing composition of our local and global atmosphere. By sonifying air-quality fluctuations, Woo hopes​ to engage the public in an experiential understanding of climate science and how aspects of our atmosphere, while a shared resource, reflect socioeconomic disparities.

His work was featured on PBS News Hour:


See also Smog Meringues and British Pathe - Air Pollution

Indian Election Analysis: Election manifestos feature air plan but little action on ground

A new report titled “Political Leaders Position and Action on Air Quality in India” released by Climate Trends also highlighted that members of parliament in 14 Indian cities, among the most polluted cities globally as per the WHO 2018 urban air quality database, have done little to get their cities to comply with safe air quality standards locally.

“The manifestos of both the national parties have proven that political parties cannot ignore and neglect air pollution related health emergency any more. This rhetoric is a good sign. But the bigger question is - if this electoral promise will translate into strong enough political will to push for hard action with accountability and show results,” said Anumita Roychowdhury, executive director, Centre for Science and Environment. Delhi’s air pollution levels recorded a fall in 2018 because of multiple strategies, she added.

Energy and Health in the 2019 BJP Manifesto

The BJP’s Manifesto was released in the last few days. A little hard to hunt down, initially, though a PDF is hosted at documentcloud.

In a section that is partly a list of achievements and partly a description of next steps:

We have evolved technologically better strategies and devices to map the level of pollution in cities and rivers and have taken effective steps to reduce the level of pollution in major cities, including the national capital. We will convert the National Clean Air Plan into a Mission and we will focus on 102 most polluted cities in the country. Through concerted action, we will reduce the level of pollution in each of the mission cities by at least 35% over the next five years.

Another part of he Manifesto is framed around 75 milestones for India’s 75th anniversary, including some focusing on health, energy, air pollution, and water & sanitation.

Under Infrastructure:

Ensure a pucca house to every family. Ensure the LPG gas cylinder connection to all poor rural households. Ensure 100% electrification of all households. Ensure a toilet in every household. Ensure access to safe and potable drinking water for all households. Bharat Mission to achieve ODF+ (Open Defecation Free) and ODF++ in cities and villages. Ensure ODF status for all villages and cities.

Under good governance:

Work towards substantially reducing the current levels of air pollution. Work towards completely eliminating crop residue burning to reduce air pollution.

Tracking ambient PM2.5 build-up in Delhi national capital region during the dry season over 15 years using a high-resolution (1 km) satellite aerosol dataset

Chowdhury S, Dey S, Di Girolamo L, Smith KR, Pillarisetti A, Lyapustin A. Tracking ambient PM2.5 build-up in Delhi national capital region during the dry season over 15 years using a high-resolution (1 km) satellite aerosol dataset. Atmospheric Environment 204: 142-150. doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2019.02.029

Emissions from village cookstoves in Haryana, India and their potential impacts on air quality

Fleming LT, Weltman R, Yadav A, Edwards RD, Arora NK, Pillarisetti A, Meinardi S, Smith KR, Blake DR, Nizkorodov SA. 2018. Emissions from village cookstoves in Haryana, India and their potential impacts on air quality, Atmos. Chem. And Phys. 18: 15169-15182 doi.org/10.5194/acp-2018-487

Daily average exposures to carbon monoxide from combustion of biomass fuels in rural households of Haryana, India

Gautam S, Pillarisetti A, Yadav A, Singh D, Arora NK, Smith KR. 2018. Daily average exposures to carbon monoxide from combustion of biomass fuels in rural households of Haryana, India. Environment, Development, and Sustainability. doi.org/10.1007/s10668-018-0131-1

Molecular Composition of Particulate Matter Emissions from Dung and Brushwood Burning Household Cookstoves in Haryana, India

Fleming LT, Lin P, Laskin A, Laskin J, Weltman R, Edwards RD, Arora NK, Yadav A, Meinardi S, Blake DR, Pillarisetti A, Smith KR, Nizkorodov SA. 2017. Molecular Composition of Particulate Matter Emissions from Dung and Brushwood Burning Household Cookstoves in Haryana, India. ACPD. 2017:1-35. doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-2461-2018

Short-Term Introduction of Air Pollutants from Fireworks During Diwali in Rural Palwal, Haryana, India: A Case Study

Gautam S, Yadav A, Pillarisetti A, Smith K, Arora N (2018) Short-Term Introduction of Air Pollutants from Fireworks During Diwali in Rural Palwal, Haryana, India: A Case Study. IOP Conf Ser: Earth Environ Sci 120:012009. doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/120/1/012009

Clean Cooking and the SDGs: integrated analytical approaches to guide energy interventions for health and environment goals

Rosenthal J, Quinn A, Grieshop AP, Pillarisetti A, Glass R. 2018. Clean Cooking and the SDGs: integrated analytical approaches to guide energy interventions for health and environment goals. Submitted to Energy for Sustainable Development. 42: 152-159. doi.org/10.1016/j.esd.2017.11.003

The potential health benefits of lower household air pollution after a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) cookstove intervention

Steenland K, Pillarisetti A, Kirby M, Peel J, Clark M, Checkley W, Chang H, Clasen T. 2018. The potential health benefits of lower household air pollution after a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) cookstove intervention. Environment International 111:71-79. doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2017.11.018